### The Importance of Signal Integrity

All electronic products use electrical signals to carry information.

At one extreme information may be relatively simple and change slowly with time, while at the other extreme, information may be complex and change rapidly with time.

If the signal integrity in a system is degraded, vital information may be lost, resulting in system malfunction, the consequences of which may be serious.

Signals may be classified as analogue or digital, both are used extensively in many products.

The use of digital signals has developed rapidly in the least few decades, but the real world is fundamentally analogue.

Methods of converting analogue signals to digital, and vice versa, are available.

Technological developments and market trends are pushing electronic systems to ever increasing complexity and operating speeds which places ever increasing demands on signal integrity.

Computer systems and digital devices are using clock frequencies of several GHz which poses severe design problems.

While loss of signal integrity in a telephone system may only cause annoyance it could have very serious repercussions in medical equipment used in an operation.

Signal integrity problems should be identified in the design phase of a product and design techniques and procedures for overcoming them should be identified.